What is the Laparoscopy Procedure?

Laparoscopy is a surgical procedure that involves making one, two, or three very small cuts in the abdomen, through which we insert a laparoscope and specialized surgical instruments.

A laparoscope is a thin, fiber-optic tube, fitted with a light and camera.

What is the advantage of Laparoscopy? Or How is it different from the conventional open surgery?

Laparoscopy allows us to see the abdominal organs and sometimes make repairs, without making a larger incision that can require a longer recovery time and hospital stay.

When Is Laparoscopy Done?

Laparoscopy is done after your periods within 12 days from day-1 of your period.

What are the indications of laparoscopy?

Laparoscopic surgery helps in diagnosing the cause for infertility. Usually, it’s performed only after other infertility testing has been completed.

If you’re experiencing pelvic pain, a potential symptom of endometriosis or PID, laparoscopic surgery can be done to determine the source of the pain and possibly treat it (by removing scar tissue, for example).

Laparoscopic surgery is also performed in the case of ectopic pregnancy.

Why Is Laparoscopy Important?

Some causes of infertility, like endometriosis, can only be diagnosed through laparoscopy. Laparoscopy allows to not only seeing what’s inside the abdomen, but also taking biopsy of suspicious growths or cysts.

Also, laparoscopic surgery can treat some causes of infertility, allowing a better chance at getting pregnant either naturally or with fertility treatments.

How Is Laparoscopy Done?

Laparoscopy is performed in a hospital, under general anesthesia. You have to be fasting i.e. not to eat or drink for 8 or more hours before the scheduled surgery.

You’ll receive an IV, through which fluids and medication to help you relax will be delivered. The anesthesiologist will place a mask over your face, and after breathing a sweet smelling gas for a few minutes, you’ll fall asleep.

Once the anesthesia has taken effect, a small cut is made around your belly button. Through this cut, a needle will be used to fill your abdomen with carbon dioxide gas. This provides room for us to see the organs and move the surgical instruments. Once your abdomen is filled with gas, we will then place the laparoscope through the cut to look around at your pelvic organs. We may also do a biopsy of tissue for testing.

Sometimes two or three more small cuts are made, so that other thin surgical instruments can be used to make repairs or move the organs around for a better view.

How Will I Feel During and After Laparoscopy?

During laparoscopic surgery, you’ll be under the effect of general anesthesia, so you will not feel any pain, nor remember the procedure. When you wake up, you may have a sore throat, caused by a tube that is placed there to help you breath during surgery (but is removed before you wake-up).

It’s normal for the area around the cuts to feel sore, and your abdomen may feel tender, especially if we have removed a lot of scar tissue. You may feel bloated from the carbon dioxide gas, and you may experience sharp pains in your shoulder. This should go away in a few days.

Though you’ll probably go home on the same day as your surgery, you should plan on taking it easy for at least one or two days. You may need a week or two to recover if many repairs were made.

You will be prescribed pain medication and antibiotics.

What are the Risks of Laparoscopy?

As with any surgical procedure, laparoscopy comes with risks. One or two women out of every 100 may develop a complication, usually a minor one.

Some common complications include:

  • bladder infection after surgery
  • skin irritation around the areas of the incision

Other less common, but potential, risks include:

  • formation of adhesions
  • hematomas of the abdominal wall
  • infection

Serious complications are rare, but include:

  • Damage to the organs or blood vessels found in the abdomen (further surgery may be needed to repair any damage caused)
  • allergic reaction
  • nerve damage
  • urinary retention
  • blood clots
  • other general anesthesia complications
  • death (around 3 in every 100,000)

What Do the Results Mean?

We will visually evaluate the pelvic organs and the surrounding abdominal organs and look for the presence of cysts, fibroids, scar tissue or adhesions, and endometrial growths.

We will also look at the shape, color, and size of the reproductive organs. A dye will be injected through the cervix, to see if the fallopian tubes are open.

Even if no signs of endometriosis or other problems are found, we may remove a sample of tissue to be tested. Sometimes, very mild endometriosis is microscopic and cannot be seen by the naked eye with the laparoscopic camera.

What Happens if the Results Are Abnormal?

Depending on what is wrong, we may treat the problem during the same surgery. Adhesions, endometrial growths, cysts, and fibroids may be removed in some cases. If the fallopian tubes are blocked, they may be opened, if possible. If an ectopic pregnancy is found, we will remove the abnormal pregnancy and repair any tissue damage. At times it is required to remove the entire fallopian tube.

After surgery, we will explain what your options are for getting pregnant. If you had fibroids removed or a fallopian tube repaired, you may be able to try to get pregnant without help. Also, in the case of endometriosis or PID, the removal of scar tissue may make it possible to get pregnant without further treatment. If after a few months after surgery you do not get pregnant on your own, we may recommend fertility treatments.