Male Infertility and IVF

Depending on the count, motility and morphology of the semen following are the different methods helpful for conception, provided there is no female factor infertility. This is just a guide and the method of choice can differ from case to case.

Method Concentration Motility Morphology
Natural conception 20million/ml or more 50% or more with forward progression 30% or more normal forms
IUI 5-15 millions/inseminate 30-50% with forward progression 15% or more normal forms
IVF 1-5 millions/inseminate 25-30% with forward progression 5-15% or more normal forms
ICSI Less than 2 millions/inseminate progressive motility <5% >95% abnormal sperm morphology

IUI – Intra Uterine Insemination or Artificial Insemination

This is the technique of choice if the count is 5-15 millions/ml, if there are 30-50% of forward progression sperms and 15% or more normal forms.

IVF In-Vitro Fertilization

This is the technique of choice if the count is 1-5 millions/ml, if there are 25-30% of forward progression sperms and 5-15% or more normal forms.


This is the technique of choice if the count is <2 millions/ml, if there are <5% of forward progression sperms and >95% or more abnormal forms.

ICSI with surgical retrieval

This is the technique of choice in severe male factor infertility or Azoospermic patients.

Semen Freezing

In the process of Semen freezing, semen is collected and mixed with equal amount of cryoprotectant (chemical to protect the sperm cells from cryo-damage) and stored in Liquid nitrogen.

Indications for Semen Freezing

  • Prior to Vasectomy
  • Prior to cancer treatments like chemo/radiotherapy
  • As a part of semen banking
  • In cases with severe male factor infertility
  • In cases prone to develop azoospermia
  • As a part of IVF cycle, when the partner has got problems with collecting semen on demand
  • In couples where the partner is a frequent traveler

Pre-requisites for semen freezing

  • Three days abstinence
  • Screening for HIV1&2, Hepatitis -B&C, VDRL
  • Consent for freezing

How long can the semen be frozen?

The semen can be frozen for many years provided the method of freezing is done properly.